Five things you can do to fight climate change

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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report called for achieving "net zero emissions" by 2050 in order to limit the rise in global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

"It's a line in the sand and what it says to our species is that this is the moment and we must act now", Debra Roberts, cochair of a working group on the impacts of climate change, tells The Guardian. We need to make to make major changes in transportation, buildings, industry, and how we use land.

"We're particularly concerned about the implications for coral reefs, with the report finding climate change will impact reefs across the world, including Australia", Ms Price said.

Even with the promises countries have made as part of the Paris Agreement to cut the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming, the world is set to breach the 1.5C threshold by around 2040. By the year 2030, global human-caused emissions of Carbon dioxide would need to fall by roughly 45 percent relative to 2010 levels.

In 2010, worldwide negotiators adopted a goal of limiting warming to 2 degrees C (3.6 degrees F) since pre-industrial times.

Professor Corinne Le Quere, from the University of East Anglia, said: "For the United Kingdom, this means a rapid switch to renewable energy and electric cars, insulating our homes, planting trees, where possible walking or cycling and eating well - more plants and less meat - and developing an industry to capture carbon and store it underground".

We must limit global warming to 1.5°C rather than the previously agreed cap of 2°C to avoid extreme heat, drought, floods and poverty, according to a landmark climate report released this morning.

The scientists said the report was meant to guide more than just governments, however, and that action by everyone - including individuals and businesses - would be required to hold the line on climate change. "This means that any remaining emissions would need to be balanced by removing Carbon dioxide from the air", it says.

The WWF called on the European Union to take urgent action to limit global warming to 1.5ºC, saying in a press release: "Approved by 195 governments, the report underscores the small window of opportunity we have to make immediate, deep and transformational changes - without which the world we know will be irreversibly changed".

"We need to extend this kind of progress on renewables to other areas".

"With more than 6,000 scientific references cited and the dedicated contribution of thousands of expert and government reviewers worldwide, this important report testifies to the breadth and policy relevance of the IPCC", said Hoesung Lee, Chair of the IPCC.

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The planet's surface has already warmed by 1 degree Celsius - or 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit - and could see a catastrophic 1.5 C - 2.7 F - increase between 2030 and 2052, scientists say.

Right now, the world is not on track to stay under the 1.5-degree mark. "But doing so would require unprecedented changes".

Four scenarios are modeled in the report that reflect different strategies governments could take to deliver "no or low overshoot" of the 1.5°C target.

If temperatures are allowed to rise to 2C, coral reefs will be wiped out, sea levels will rise by 10cm and 10 million more people will be exposed to flooding, the researchers warn.

"Large quantities of current gas plants will need to be retired early, while those under construction or in planning stages must be reconsidered immediately as they are not compatible with the 1.5-degree future", Chen said.

Chris Mooney, covers climate change, energy and the environment for the Washington Post.

The IPCC report doesn't list country-wise impacts.

Professor Piers Forster, of the University of Leeds and a lead author of the emissions chapter of the report, told DeSmog all paths to 1.5°C "require deep decarbonization of electricity generation".

"Even at a little over 1.0°C warming, India is being battered by the worst climate extremes - it is clear that the situation at 1.5°C is going to worsen".

Methods to take excess carbon out of the atmosphere will also be needed.

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