Australia was slow in its build up and its crosses were unable to penetrate the tall Danish rearguard, although the Socceroos did come more into the game after the half hour mark.
Jedinak, however, got Australia back into the game with his second penalty in Russian Federation, awarded following the intervention of the VAR, and the draw kept the Socceroos just about alive in the tournament.
Eriksen's early opener was a body blow for Australia but they were given a lifeline when an outswinging corner seemed destined for the head of Hertha Berlin winger Mathew Leckie but came off the arm of Yussuf Poulsen.
That was the last meaningful action of the contest, with both nations having to settle for a share of the spoils which maintains their respective hopes of making it out of Group C and into the knockout stages.
After their opening defeat by France, Van Marwijk resisted the temptation to draft in attacking reinforcements, leaving veteran forward Tim Cahill on the bench for the second match in a row.
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Australia's midfielder Mile Jedinak celebrates after scoring a penalty kick against Denmark in their World Cup Group C match at the Samara Arena in Samara, Russia. Instead, Denmark fell victim to the system, which has worked well so far in the World Cup but isn't flawless. We have a few players who are at a higher level than them if you look at the squads player by player.
The outstanding Leckie then produced some much-needed last-third quality after Denmark goalkeeper Kasper Schmeichel flapped at a cross, but his ball that fizzed across the area and was destined for a Robbie Kruse tap-in was hacked away at the last minute.
The Danes enjoyed their best period after this but failed to capitalise on their possession and territorial advantage.
With the result, Denmark is up to four points in the group, while Australia has one.
"We have to give the same performance against France, with a lot of discipline, but improve in the things which can make a difference".
Sisto went close at the other end, while Australia striker Andrew Nabbout was forced off with a serious-looking shoulder injury.